“aesthetic modernity” (Casanova 75) :
The means, factors, or markers by which an audience will gauge and assess the historical moment in which a text is situated; it is relative to given society’s “aesthetic norms.”
In turn, it “sets the time” (Fisk)
“Literary Resources” (Casanova 83) – The accumulated history and achievements of a given nation that gives it credence and allows it to enter and participate in the world literary space. The allocation of these resources are controlled by those in the center of the space, creating the sense of “soft violence” or domination to those outside the “center sphere”
“World Literary Space” (72): the space that exists between literature and the world, typically autonomous from national politics. For example, Orhan Pamuk creates his own ‘space’ through his novel, “The Museum of Innocence.” Though a fictional story, Pamuk’s novel creates a believable world that allows for his characters to interact (and fall in love with Kemal and Füsun’s case). This ‘space’ that the author creates must allow for some truth to seep through, no matter what truth that may be. Within the text, the author makes the choice to include an actual ticket stub to his museum (520), further encouraging a space between the ‘literature’ (the novel) and the ‘world’ (the reader).
Greenwich Meridian of Literature (pg. 75):
The center of the literary present, which serves as a reference point or norm against which later texts will be measured or adjusted. Similarly to the way that clocks were set by London, this sets the mark against which contemporary works are situated in time and space.
Inter-national Literary Power Relations (Casanova, 79) :
Literature worldwide that is associated politically. It can be shown in literature from 1890 and 1930 through the events that happened in London and Paris. However, there are other factors that can be assessed when looking at literature from these parts of the world. In other words, we shouldn’t only use this term when exploring literature.
Although astigmatism is only mentioned once in the reading, I felt it was largely representational of the ideas being discussed. Casanova writes
“The national division of literatures leads to a form of astigmatism. An analysis of Irish literary space between 1890 and 1930 that… passed in silence over the trajectories, exiles, and various forms of recognition offered in the different capitals” and contributed “to a partial and distorted view of the actual stakes and power relations facing Irish protagonists” (78-79).
The word astigmatism invokes the idea that things are not always what they seem to be. The illusion of knowledge can come in the form of an incomplete understanding of a situation. Because many examples of literature are prone to leaving out vital pieces of information, readers must be more attentive of the context under which something was written.
“Degrees of Autonomy” is the amount of space and freedom the literature world is given to itself aside from the political and social spheres. As Casanova states “But if the literary world is relatively independent of the political and eco- nomic universe, it is by the same token relatively dependent on it. The entire history of world literary space—both in its totality, and within each of the national literary spaces that compose it—is one of an ini- tial dependence on national-political relations, followed by a progressive emancipation from them through a process of autonomization” (85).
“Modernismo” (Casanova 88)
“It is in these terms that I would analyse the advent of modernismo in the Spanish-speaking countries at the end of the 19th century. How to explain the fact that this movement, which turned the entire tradition of Hispanic poetry on its head…”
Modernismo was an important event in literary history towards the late 19th century into the early 20th century which was a reaction to one of Zoila’s literary naturalism pieces. Spanish speaking countries used this period to go against the idea of materialistic items and social ideas and limitations. Many important people, like Rubén Darío, used techniques that the French used, during the time of this literary movement.
There are types of domination within the literary sphere that are broken into three major pieces: linguistic, literary, and political. The types of works presented and studied within literature are often controlled by the dominating factors, such as the languages of the works produced, the content that is produced- works of literary acclaim are acclaimed by what measurement and by whom, and the works themselves are produced by what characteristics.
“Literary globalization” (Casanova 74)
“‘literary globalization’ – better defined as a short-term boost to publishers’ profits in the most market-oriented and powerful centres through the marketing of products intended for rapid ‘de-nationalized’ circulation.”
Literary globalization is the process of globalizing a national text. In the sense of becoming global, that text is then “de-nationalized” as it is read by multiple countries around the world. By this worldwide circulation of a text, the author gains recognition as a global instead of national writer. It is defined as a short-term boost to profits. However, the text itself is a profit that benefits global readers, and shifts the essence of national identity to an international one.
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